Location and population
Cabinda is a territory Coast located in Central Africa south of the Equator and slightly north of the Congo River, between the coordinates: 4 ° 22 ’30”and 5 º 48′ latitude South and 12 º and 13 º 13′ East longitude .
The population of Cabinda is over 600,000 inhabitants; almost half are living in exile. The people of Cabinda are numerically comparable to that of the Seychelles (pop. 671,000); and higher than that of Luxembourg (300,000 inhabitants), Equatorial Guinea (343,000 inhabitants).
Cabinda is bounded on the North by the Republic of Congo / Brazzaville, South and East by the Democratic Republic of Congo / Kinshasa and on the West by the Atlantic Ocean (200 km of coastline).
Cabinda has no common border with Angola
Languages: Fiote or Ibinda and Portuguese
Area: 10,000 sq. km
Brief historical summary: Cabinda, from origins to our days.
Cabinda is the result of a fusion of three kingdoms: Kakongo, N’Goyo and Loango which were originally independent kingdoms of the ancient kingdom of Kongo dia Ngunga or Kongo or Kongo dia Ntolila .
In 1500, these three small kingdoms were emancipated and formed Cabinda. Following the arrival of Europeans on the shores of the Kongo kingdom in the fifteenth century Cabinda became stakes for the covetousness of the various colonial powers.
Portugal, fearing to lose Cabinda signed treaties with chiefs of Cabinda in 1883 (Chimfuma), 1884 (Chicamba) and 1885 (Simulambuco), before the Berlin Conference, meeting of European powers for the partition of colonies and spheres of influence in Africa.
In 1st February 1885 the Simulambuco Treaty was signed between, the princes of Cabinda and the Portuguese crown, giving Cabinda the status of Portuguese protectorate, however Angola was already a Portuguese colony since 1482.
In 1910 an end was put by a military coup to King Manuel II reign and it was proclaimed to be the Republic of Portugal, which adopts a new constitution.
In 1933, a new Fundamental Law maintained distinction among his Portuguese overseas provinces between Angola (a colony) and Cabinda (a protectorate).
1956: For reasons of mere administrative convenience and ease of management, Portugal administratively attached Cabinda to its Angolan colony, without consulting the Cabindan people, which had no border with Angola.
1963: Creation of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda.
Before the annexation of Cabinda by Angola, Cabindan people had never submitted to the Portuguese rule.
FLEC was established in Pointe-Noire, Congo-Brazzaville from 2 to 4 August 1963 as a result of the merger of the Movement for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (MLEC), the Committee of Action for the Cabindan National Union (CAUNC) and the Alliance of Mayombe (Alliama) with the perspective of liberating Cabindan people from Portuguese rule.
1964: At the time of the summit of African Union Organisation held in Cairo, the issue of Cabinda was once again arose, this in accordance to the programme of decolonisation of Africa which recognised Cabinda as the 39th African State to decolonise and Angola being the 35th.
On 15th January 1975 at the signature of Alvor Accords between Portugal and Angolan liberation movements (FNLA, MPLA and UNITA) Cabinda was annexed to Angola which violates the international law that recognizes to Cabinda sovereignty and right to self-determination.
The Cabindan people expressed their total indignation against such annexation and declared it null and void.
From 2 to 3 November 1974 Cabinda is militarily occupied by the forces of the MPLA from Pointe-Noire, Congo-Brazzaville with help of Cubans and Soviets’.
With this invasion and occupation followed the annexation; the Cabindan people will experience a tragedy without precedent that lasts until today.
Quoting the famous terms of the intellectual and deeply human man below, the Cabindan people appeal to the International Community to say a word on Cabinda:
<< For the people, the worse of denial of justice isn’t to be crashed, but quasi erased from the universal memory by a hegemonic propaganda which devotes them to the bins of history >>. François-Xavier
The map approved by the OAU in 1964, the current African Union (AU), and recognized by the UN for the total decolonization of Africa, Cabinda is ranked 39th State and Angola 35th
Some Memorable Events of the Struggle of the People of Cabinda
2010 – Creation of the Liberal Forum for the Emancipation of Cabinda to fill the politic and diplomatic void deliberately created by internal struggles of the Flec.
2010 – Ex-leaders of the Flec-Fac led By Alexandre Tati and Estanislau Boma surrenders to the Government of Angola after the attack of Massabi against Togo’s national team
2010 – Imprisonment and condemnation from 3 to 6 years of Cabindan intellectuals and civic activists by Angolan Government, after the events of Massabi
2010 – Treacherous attack against the convoy of Togolese team attributed to the Flec
2009 – Preliminary meeting for the preparation of the Inter-cabindan Conference, in Paris
2008 – Fernando Lelo arbitrarily sentenced to 12 years in prison
2007 – Some elements close to the President of Flec, led by his son Antoine Nzita, start openly serving Angolan interests
2007 – The Government of Angola illegalizes Mpalabanda (Cabindan Civic Association)
2006 – Cabindan people reject the Memorandum of Integration signed by Bento Bembe
2006 – The Government of Angola imposes the Memorandum of Understanding for Cabinda to Bento Bembe
2005 – Bento Bembe detained in Holland, disappears mysteriously of his fixed residence to reappear as negotiator in supposed negotiations with Angola
2005 – Priests and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church in Cabinda reject the nomination of the Angolan Bishop for the Diocese of Cabinda
2005 – Nomination of the Angolan Bishop D. Filomeno do Nascimento Vieira Dias for the Diocese of Cabinda
2004 – Realization of the Inter-cabindan Conference in Holland where were created the Cabindan Forum for Dialogue as ad-hoc commission of Flec integrating members of the civil society to start contacts with Angola; and the Nkoto-Likanda (CNPC)
2003 – Realization of the Conference “A Common Vision for Cabinda” in the cine Chiloango
2003 – Creation of Mpalabanda, Civic Association of Cabinda
2002 – The Angolan forces “FAA” unleash “Operation Vassoura” with the objective to destroy the FLEC-FAC
2002 – The President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos admits the possibility to carry out the referendum for Cabinda
2002 – Published the first report “Terror in Cabinda” on the human rights with the collaboration of Open Society
1999 – Demonstration of Cabindan Women in the streets of Tchiowa, Cabinda
1999 – Contamination of the sea of Cabinda caused by spills of large quantities of crude
1994 – The President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos meets with the President of FLEC-FAC Nzita Henriques Tiago, in Paris
1994 – Francisco Xavier Lubota becomes president of the FDC
1992 – Creation of the Democratic Front of Cabinda (FDC)
1991 – Nationalist Demonstration in Cabinda
1991 – The President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos announces in the Angolan National Assembly the possibility to grant a statute of autonomy for Cabinda
1991 – The President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos promises in Cabinda: “Let’s Talk”
1991 – Realization of the Conference of Cabindan executive group in Lisbon
1991 – Transformation of the Flec/PM into Flec-Renovada
1985 – Flec-Fac signs an agreement of cease-fire with the Angolan forces FAPLA
1985 – Creation of the National Union for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (UNALEC)
1984 – Creation of the National Union for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (UNLC)
1984 – Creation of the Diocese of Cabinda
1979 – Disintegration of FLEC
1979 – Ranque Franque seeks exile in Canada
1976 – Beginning of the guerrilla war for the independence of Cabinda
1976 – The divergences are accentuated in the leadership of FLEC on the philosophy of the development of the struggle
1975 – Outbreak of the called “Classic War” in Cabinda
1974 – Official opening of the office of Flec in the city of Tchiowa, Cabinda
1974 – On 25th of April, the Revolution of Carnations dictates the fall of the Portuguese colonial regime
971 – The issue of Cabinda is presented to the National Assembly of Portugal, in Lisbon
1967 – Nzita Henriques Tiago presents himself to the Portuguese colonial authorities in Cabinda
1967 – Creation of the Cabindan Revolutionary Committee (CRC) by Nzita Henriques Tiago, in Pointe Noire
1965 – Nzita Henriques Tiago integrates the “Angolan Good Offices” with Manuel Lanvo Norman
1964 – The deceased Alexandre Tati leaves the FNLA and organizes a Cabindan guerrilla war from Pointe Noire, which lasts a little time because of the opposition of FLEC presidency that makes him, lose the support of the rearguard
1963 – The Organization of African Unity (OAU), current African Union (AU) enumerates Cabinda as 39th state still to be decolonized, and Angola as 35th, list published in 1964.
1963 – Creation of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC)
1962 – Creation of the Alliance of the Maiombe (ALIAMA) and of the Committee of Action for the National Unity of Cabinda (CAUNC)
1962 – Ranque Franque in the capacity of President of the MLEC participates in the works of the 4th Commission of the United Nations General Assembly.
1960 – Creation of the Movement for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (MLEC)
1960 – From the platform of the United Nations General Assembly, Mr. Stéphane Tshitshele, then Vice president and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Congo Brazzaville presented to the international community the request of the Cabindan people.
1959 – Foundation of the group of nationalists known by Cabindan Community (COMCABI)
1959 – Foundation of the group of nationalists known by Social Union of the Mayombes of Luáli (USML)
1959 – Foundation of the “Association des Ressortissants de l’Enclave du Cabinda” (AREC) that later became a political group
1956 – Foundation of the first group of nationalists known as Association of the Natives of the Enclave of Cabinda (AIEC)
1956 – Portugal joins administratively Cabinda and Angola for resource saving reasons.
1954 – Oil exploration begins in Cabinda
1954 – Construction of the monument that symbolizes the Treaty of Simulambuco linking Cabinda to Portugal, during the visit of the 1st Minister of Portugal António Salazar.
It became a symbol of commemoration of Cabinda integration in Portuguese Nation.
1885 – Cabinda becomes Portuguese protectorate on basis of the Treaty of Simulambuco recognized internationally by the Conference of Berlin for the partition of Africa.
Cabinda is almost totality covered by the tropical forest, in such a way that, lumber industry has solid bases to be developed in Cabinda.
The ground of Cabinda is sufficiently fertile and produces coffee, cacao, coconut, latex and oil of palm.
The subsoil is rich in natural resources, such as: oil, phosphate, gold, manganese, quartz, Uranium and potassium
However, the most important product that constitutes the foreign economic attraction in Cabinda is its oil, whose exploration is evaluated in approximately 1.000.000 of barrels/day, and contributes more than 60% of the current total production of the Angolan oil.
Although this, Cabinda the main producing of the oil commercialized by Angola is attributed only close to 10% of annual prescriptions of the explorations of its oil, that for irony not even arrives in Cabinda and managed in disastrous form.
For this reason and others of political calculation of the occupants, Cabinda in the context of Angola has the highest living cost and one of the poorest territories of Africa ignored by all